Revision practice for quiz revision session Freud and Development of self (other questions taken from handouts)



According to Freud the following is a part of personality what is the one word name for it


Id - The primitive, instinctive, unconscious part of personality. This part of personality demands immediate satisfaction(the need to behave in unacceptable ways) and is governed by the Pleasure Principle.



What is Existential Self (Self Awareness)



Existential Self (Self Awareness)


Awareness of own separate existence – separate from surroundings and other people , sense of continuity of self over develops over time.




According to Freud the following is a part of personality what is the one word name for it


Super Ego - The ethical and moral component of personality. This is normally learnt from others i.e. Parents. The Super Ego is basically your conscience.



Define the Ego


Ego - The conscious, intellectual part of personality. The Ego regulates the Id. The Ego is governed by the reality principle(the need to behave in acceptable ways)





Explain about Lewis and Brooksgunn (1978) –Mirror Technique



Lewis and Brooksgunn (1978) –Mirror Technique

Baby 9-12 months placed in front of mirror, looks at image, smiles and tries to play. Experimenter wipes babies nose with rouge.

Key Question- Does baby reach/explore spot on its own nose or on the mirror.

9-12months 0% explore the spot on their nose

15-18months 25% explore the spot on their nose

21-24months 75% explore the spot on their nose













What happens in the Anal stage of development


Anal Stage (18 months - 3 years old)

Most sexual pleasure detaches itself from the mouth and it concentrates itself on the anus. The child experiences erotic gratification from withholding(disobedience) and expelling(compliance) faeces. Therefore frustration and conflict may arise over toilet training (Any disturbance of this may result in permanent fixation in the anal channel for gratification and may be responsible for the following -- People who enjoyed withholding faeces Stinginess, Punctuality and Possessiveness. -- People who enjoyed enjoyed expelling faeces Hot Tempers, untidiness and destructiveness.




What happens in the Oral stage of development

Oral Stage (12-18 months old)

Pleasure(sexual) is gained basically from the mouth , first through sucking then biting (Any disturbance of this may result in permanent fixation on the oral channel for gratification and may be responsible for Smoking, Overeating, thumb-sucking, pencil chewing. Your personality may develop to be impatient, greedy and dependent)




What is Categorical self


Categorical Self –The ability to place one self in whole range of categories(e.g. Age , Gender, Size)

Young children place ‘self’ at extremes on any dimension e.g. reger to self (and others) as BIG or SMALL but not usually in between.














What is castration anxiety and how is it alleviated

The boy is now aware of physical differences between boys and girls and he fears that his penis will be cut off - Castration Anxiety (as has the girls he believes) because of his desires for his mother. To alleviate this Castration Anxiety the boy abandons his striving to posses his mother and increases his identification with his father wanting to be like him rather than replacing him.




What is self esteem and how is it affected



Self Esteem


Evaluative dimension of Self


Coopersmith stated Self Esteem is ‘ Personal judgement of worthiness’


Argyle (1969.83) Self Esteem may be affected by 1) Reaction of others 2) Comparison with others, Roles, Identification with others



What is the electra complex, How is this alleviated


Girl - Resents Mother's place in her father's affections and her mother's shared deficit(lack of penis). The girl may develop neurotic sexual inhibitions or may display more masculine behaviour. She develops a desire to have her fathers baby (a boy) to make up the deficiency she lacks i.e. a penis (electra complex)